glossary    * C *
Demographical and statistical terms Symbols
cause of death
the disease or event that caused death.

 

cause-specific death rates
the annual number of deaths from a given cause per 100000 mid-year population . Cause-specific rates are reported for sex-age groups, local areas, and sometimes other categories.

 

census
a complete count or enumeration of a population conducted under the auspices of some governmental authority. This term denotes that an attempt was made to enumerate every member of the population concerned and to achieve complete coverage of the population. A micro census is limited to a sample of the population, usually large in size, and belongs in the category of sample surveys. Censuses or surveys are sometimes preceded by pre-tests or pilot surveys.

 

central death rate at age x
is the ratio of deaths between ages x and x+n to the mean population alive at that age.
n m x ; m(x) ; M(x)
childbearing ages
the span wěthin which women are capable of bearing children, generally taken to be from age 15 to age 49.

 

childbirth
is the actual process of expulsion of the foetus. (see delivery)

 

childlessness
refer to the state of a women, man or couple who have been so far infertile.

 

child-women ratio
number of children aged 0-4 (or 5-9) per 1000 women of childbearing age ( f.e., 15-49) at the time they born those children.

 

closed population
in which there is no migration either inwards or outwards and whose growth is determined solely by fertility and mortality, and therefore depends entirely on the difference between births and deaths.

 

coding scheme
the coding scheme establishes a correspondence between an entry and its translation into numeric or alphabetic codes.

 

coefficient of determination
estimates the fitting degree among observed data and theoretical data.
R2 or RR
cohort
denotes a group of persons who experience a certain event in a specific period of time.

 

cohort fertility
the fertility experienced over their life-time of a group of women or men who form a birth or marriage cohort.

 

cohort fertility rate
fertility of real cohorts of women, obtained by tracing them longitudinally from year to year. Cohort rates may be age-specific or cumulative.
For completed cohorts which have passed their 49th birthday, it is possible to compute for each a general fertility rate, total fertility rate, and other summary measures.

 

cohort life table
records the actual mortality experience of a particular group of individuals (the cohort) from birth to the death of the last member of the group.

 

completed fertility
is the cumulative fertility until the date when all members of the cohort have reached the end of the reproductive period.

 

complete life-table
a life table computed for every single year of age from birth to the oldest specified age.

 

contraception
this term refers to measure which are taken in order to prevent sexual intercourse or coitus from resulting in conception, or to the conscious effort of couples to avoid conception through rhythm, withdrawal, abstinence, male and female sterilization, or use of contraceptives: intrauterine devise (IUD), oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, condom, spermicide, and diaphragm. and female sterilization, or use of contraceptives: intrauterine devise (IUD), oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, condom, spermicide, and diaphragm.

 

crude birth rate at time t
when all live births are related to the entire population or subpopulation.
b(t) or Br
crude death rate at time t
this is an annual rate and consists of the ratio of the annual number of deaths occurring during a calendar year per 1000 mid-year population.
d(t) or Dr
crude divorce rate
is given by the total number of the divorces in a year divided by the total number of person years lived by the population, or per 1000 mid-year population. Similar rates may be considered setting in the denominator the number of persons above age 15, or the total number of exinting marriages (identical to the number of married men or women ) exposed to risk of divorce.

 

crude emigration rate
represents the amount of emigration per 1000 of the mid-year population of a country

 

crude first marriage rate
is given by the total number of marriages of women or men in a year, divided by the number of person years lived by the single population of women or men. We have a similar rate when in the denominator is the single population of age groups that may legally marry (for convenience 15 is taken as minimum age).

 

crude gross migration rate
represents the amount of emigration plus immigration per 1000 of the mid-year population of a country .

 

crude immigration rate
represents the amount of immigration per 1000 of the mid-year population of a country .

 

crude marriage rate
is the total number of marriages divided by the total number of person years lived by the total mid-year population, or by the population aged 15 or more.

 

crude net migration rate
represents the difference between immigration and emigration per 1000 of the mid-year population of a country .

 

crude rate of natural increase
is the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate
r(t)
crude remarriage rate
represents the total number of remarriages in a year, divided by the sum of widowed and divorced men or women exposed to the possibility of remarriage.

 

cumulative fertility
it is obtained when the age-specific fertility rates are summed from the cohort's beginning of exposure to risk until some later date.

 

cumulative net fertility
represents the sum of the products of the fertility rates of the cohort by the probability of survival of the women to successive aged.

 

current life table
considers the mortality experience of a given population during one short period of time.

 

curve fitting
curve fitting consists of finding a suitable equation to represent the trend of the examined data

 

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